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The Effective Maths calculation policy for multiplication and division provides an overview of the content and methods taught in each year group from Year 1 to Year 6. For Years 1-4 it also includes the visual representations of the methods. (In Year 5 and 6 there are no new methods and the representations encountered are the same as in earlier years. What is different is the range of number that children work with.)


For each year group in Years 1-6 the document provides:

(i) a content summary section;

(ii) details about the approaches used for teaching the above;

(iii) the representations used.

Each section includes content from:


  • calculation unit 6 (Y1); multiplication and division units 1 and 2 (Y2); multiplication and division units 1 to 3 (KS2);

  • the Block 3 calculation unit;

  • money and decimals units;

  • fractions units (Years 2-6).


The document is provided in several versions:

  • whole school version;

  • year group specific versions;

  • a Key Stage 1 only version (for infant schools).

For Years 1-6 there are two versions of each year group specific version:

  • a landscape version, like a PowerPoint slide, containing (i), (ii) and (iii);

  • a portrait version of the representations section (iii) with notes to support the representations.

Representations of 12 ÷ 3

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